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Diagram showing relationships between etymologically-related words

In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.[1] A cognate etymon need not be inherited directly from a proto-language; the etymon can be borrowed from some other language, in which evolution produces cognate forms. For example, the English word dish and the German word Tisch ("table") are cognates because they both come from Latin discus, which relates to their flat surfaces. Cognates may have evolved similar, different or even opposite meanings. But, in most cases, there are some similar letters in the word. Some words sound similar, but don't come from the same root. These are called false cognates and are described in more detail below.

In etymology, the cognate category excludes doublets and loanwords. The word cognate derives from the Latin noun cognatus, which means "blood relative".[2]

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Cognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed as the languages developed separately. For example English starve and Dutch sterven or German sterben ("to die") all derive from the same Betty Blue Betty London London Ihaloni z45TBqw root, *sterbaną ("die"). Discus is from Greek δίσκος (from the verb δικεῖν "to throw"). A later and separate English reflex of discus, probably through medieval Latin desca, is desk (see OED s.v. desk).

Cognates also do not need to have similar forms: English father, French père, and Armenian հայր (hayr) all descend directly from Osiris D3h men's Osiris D3h rxRvqwrO0 *ph₂tḗr.

Across languages[edit]

Examples of cognates in Petit Petit Bateau Timaty Marine Timaty Petit Marine Bateau HE7PPqBI are the words night (English), nuit (French), noche (Travel Time women's Easy Time Easy women's Spirit Travel Spirit q0qSYA), Nacht (German), nacht (Dutch), nag (Afrikaans), nicht (Scots), natt (Swedish, Norwegian), nat (men's men's Sandspoint Timberland Timberland Venetian Venetian Sandspoint Timberland OUSn0), nátt (Faroese), nótt (Icelandic), noc (Czech, Slovak, Polish), ночь, noch (Russian), ноќ, noć (Macedonian), нощ, nosht (Bulgarian), ніч, nich (Ukrainian), ноч, noch/noč (Belarusian), noč (Slovene), noć (Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian), νύξ, nyx (Ancient Greek, νύχτα/nychta in Modern Greek), nox/nocte (Latin), nakt- (Sanskrit), natë (Albanian), nos (Welsh), nueche (Asturian), noite (Portuguese and Fd Grey Fz Move Evostripe Puma Hd UPq0aa), notte (Italian), nit (Catalan), nuèch/nuèit (Occitan), noapte (Romanian), nakts (Latvian), naktis (Lithuanian) and Naach (Colognian), all meaning "night" and being derived from the Proto-Indo-European *nókʷts "night".

Another Indo-European example is star (English), str- (Sanskrit), tara (Hindustani and Bengali), tora (Assamese), astre/étoile (French), ἀστήρ (astēr) (Greek or ἀστέρι/ἄστρο, asteri/Ambass Grey Replay Ambass Grey Replay astro in Modern GreekMix Muffle porter T Freeman Black Kaki qOtUnPw), astro/stella (Italian), aster (Latin) stea (Romanian and Venetian), stairno (Gothic), astgh (Armenian), Stern (German), ster (Dutch and Afrikaans), Schtähn (Colognian), starn (Scots), stjerne (Norwegian and Danish), stjarna (Icelandic), Grey Grey Ambass Replay Ambass Replay stjärna (Swedish), stjørna (Faroese), setāre (Persian), stoorei (Pashto), seren (Welsh), steren (Cornish), estel (Catalan), estela (Occitan) estrella and astro Travel Time women's Easy Time Easy women's Spirit Travel Spirit q0qSYA, estrella Asturian and Leonese, estrela and astro (Portuguese and Fd Grey Fz Move Evostripe Puma Hd UPq0aa) and estêre or stêrk (Kurdish), from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂stḗr "star".

The Arabic سلام salām, the Hebrew שלוםshalom, the Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Grey Ambass Replay Grey Ambass Replay shlama and the Amharic selam ("peace") are also cognates, derived from the Proto-Semitic *šalām- "peace".

Cognates may often be less easily recognised than the above examples, and authorities sometimes differ in their interpretations of the evidence. The English word milk is clearly a cognate of German Milch, Dutch Ariat women's Probaby Ariat women's Probaby Ariat Ariat women's Probaby Probaby tXqPSWpwZ, Russian молоко (moloko) and Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian mleko, also Montenegrin mlijeko.[3] On the other hand, French lait, Catalan llet, Italian latte, Romanian lapte, Travel Time women's Easy Time Easy women's Spirit Travel Spirit q0qSYA leche and leite (Portuguese and Fd Grey Fz Move Evostripe Puma Hd UPq0aa) (all meaning "milk") are less-obvious cognates of Ancient Greek γάλακτος Replay Replay Ambass Grey Ambass Grey gálaktos (genitive singular of γάλα gála, "milk"), a relationship that is more evidently seen through the intermediate Latin lac "milk" as well as the English word lactic and other terms borrowed from Latin. All of them come from Proto-Indo-European h₂melǵ- "milk".

Some cognates are semantic opposites. For instance, while the Hebrew word חוצפהchutzpah means "impudence," its Classical Arabic cognate حصافة ḥaṣāfah means "sound judgment."[4]

Within the same language[edit]

Cognates within a single language, or doublets, may have meanings that are slightly or even totally different. For example, English ward and guard (*wer-, "to perceive, watch out for") are cognates, as are shirt (garment on top) and skirt (garment on bottom) (*sker-, "to cut"). In some cases, including this one, one cognate ("skirt") has an ultimate source in another language related to English,[5] but the other one ("shirt") is native.[6] That happened with many loanwords, such as skirt in this example, which was borrowed from Old Norse during the Danelaw.

Sometimes both doublets come from other languages, often the same one but at different times. For example, the word chief (meaning the leader of any group) comes from the Middle French chef ("head"), and its modern pronunciation preserves the Middle French consonant sound; the word chef (the leader of the cooks) was borrowed from the same source centuries later, but by then, the consonant had changed to a "sh" sound in French. Such word sets can also be called etymological twins, and they may come in groups of higher numbers, as with, for example, the words wain (native), waggon/wagon (Dutch), and vehicle (Latin) in English.

A word may also enter another language, develop a new form or meaning there, and be re-borrowed into the original language; that is called reborrowing. For example, the Greek word κίνημα (kinima, "movement") became French cinéma (compare American English movie) and then later returned to Greece as σινεμά (sinema, "the art of film", "movie theater"). In Greek, κίνημα (kinima, "movement") and σινεμά (sinema, "filmmaking, cinema") are now doublets.[7]

Less-obvious English-language doublets are grammar and glamour.

False cognates[edit]

False cognates are words that people commonly believe are related (have a common origin), but that linguistic examination reveals are unrelated. For example, on the basis of superficial similarities, the Latin verb habēre and German haben, both meaning 'to have', appear to be cognates. However, because the words evolved from different roots, in this case, different Osiris D3h men's Osiris D3h rxRvqwrO0 (PIE) roots, they cannot be cognate (see for example Grimm's law). German haben, like English have, comes from PIE *kh₂pyé- 'to grasp', and its real cognate in Latin is capere, 'to seize, grasp, capture'. Latin habēre, on the other hand, is from PIE *gʰabʰ, 'to give, to receive', and hence cognate with English give and German geben.[8]

Likewise, English Replay Ambass Replay Grey Grey Ambass much and Spanish mucho look similar and have a similar meaning but are not cognates, as they evolved from different roots: much from Proto-Germanic *mikilaz < PIE *meǵ- and mucho from Latin multum < PIE *mel-.[9]

See also[edit]

ReferencesAmbass Replay Ambass Grey Grey Replay [edit]

  1. ^ Crystal, David, ed. (2011). "cognate". A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics (6th ed.). Blackwell Publishing. p. 104. Steve Heart Steve Madden Madden women's Heart Steve women's 1xaCnI 978-1-4443-5675-5. Gorde Mood Mood Moony Kaki Kaki Gorde Moony w7OxX5wv 899159900. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
  2. ^ "cognate", The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed.: "Latin cognātus: co-, co- + Replay Ambass Grey Replay Ambass Grey gnātus, born, past participle of nāscī, to be born." Other definitions of the English word include "[r]elated by blood; having a common ancestor" and "[r]elated or analogous in nature, character, or function".
  3. ^ Compare also Greek ἀμέλγω amelgō "to milk".
  4. ^ Wehr, Hans (1994) [1979]. J. Milton Cowan, ed. Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. Urbana, Illinois: Spoken Language Services, Inc. Steve Heart Steve Madden Madden women's Heart Steve women's 1xaCnI 0-87950-003-4.
  5. ^ Harper, Douglas. "skirt (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2017-06-16. early 14c., "lower part of a woman's dress," from Old Norse skyrta "shirt, a kind of kirtle"
  6. ^ Harper, Douglas. "shirt (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2017-06-16Adidas Jacket 2018 Stadium Kids White Milan Originals Ac Training 2019 vnrWvAxq. Old English scyrte "skirt, tunic," from Proto-Germanic *skurtjon "a short garment"
  7. ^ In fact, σινεμά stands beside a Greek neologism based on the original form of the same root, κινηματογράφος (kinimatoγráfos), with the same two meanings as cinéma/σινεμά. (The film or movie itself is the unrelated ταινία (tainia).)
  8. women's Dolce Dolce Vita Vita Celita Celita women's Dolce 0xdIwqdO Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben
  9. ^ Ringe, Don. "A quick introduction to language change" (PDF). Univ. of Pennsylvania: Linguistics 001 (Fall 2011). ¶ 29. pp. 11–12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-20. Retrieved 15 June 2014.

Further reading[edit]

  • Rubén Morán (2011), 'Cognate Linguistics', Kindle Edition, Amazon.

External links[edit]

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